Billings, J.C.W., Keilholz, S.D. The Not-So-Global BOLD Signal. Brain Connectivity. 2018. [Epub ahead of print]


Jacob C.W. Billings, Alessio Medda, Sadia Shakil, Xiaohong Shen, Amrit Kashyap, Shiyang Chen, Anzar Abbas, Xiaodi Zhang, Maysam Nezafati, Wen-Ju Pan, Gordon J. Berman, Shella D. Keilholz, Instantaneous brain dynamics mapped to a continuous state space, In NeuroImage, Volume 162, 2017, Pages 344-352, ISSN 1053-8119,

S. Shakil, J. C. Billings, S. D. Keilholz and C. H. Lee, “Parametric Dependencies of Sliding Window Correlation,” in IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1-1. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2017.2762763

Grooms JK, Thompson GJ, Pan WJ, Billings J, Schumacher EH, Epstein CM, Keilholz SD. Infraslow EEG and dynamic resting state network activity. Brain Connect. 2017 May 2. doi: 10.1089/brain.2017.0492.


Shakil S, Keilholz SD, Lee CH. Adaptive change point detection of dynamic functional connectivity networks. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2016 Aug;2016:1135-1138. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2016.7590904.

Keilholz SD, Billings JC, Kai Wang, Abbas A, Hafeneger C, Wen-Ju Pan, Shakil S, Nezafati M. Multiscale network activity in resting state fMRI.

Shakil S, Lee CH, Keilholz SD. Evaluation of sliding window correlation performance for characterizing dynamic functional connectivity and brain states.  Neuroimage. 2016 Jun;133:111-28. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.02.074. Epub 2016 Mar 4.

Kiviniemi V, Wang X, Korhonen V, Keinänen T, Tuovinen T, Autio J, LeVan P, Keilholz S, Zang YF, Hennig J, Nedergaard M. Ultra-fast magnetic resonance encephalography of physiological brain activity – Glymphatic pulsation mechanisms?  J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2016 Jun;36(6):1033-45. doi: 10.1177/0271678X15622047. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Medda A, Hoffmann L, Magnuson M, Thompson G, Pan WJ, Keilholz S. Wavelet-based clustering of resting state MRI data in the rat. Magn Reson Imaging. 2016 Jan;34(1):35-43. doi: 10.1016/j.mri.2015.10.005.


Shakil S, Magnuson ME, Keilholz SD, Lee CH.  Cluster-based analysis for characterizing dynamic functional connectivity. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014;2014:982-5. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6943757.

Pan WJ, Billings JC, Grooms JK, Shakil S, Keilholz SD. Considerations for resting state functional MRI and functional connectivity studies in rodents. Front Neurosci. 2015 Aug 5;9:269. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2015.00269.

Keifer OP Jr, Hurt RC, Gutman DA, Keilholz SD, Gourley SL, Ressler KJ.  Voxel-based morphometry predicts shifts in dendritic spine density and morphology with auditory fear conditioning.  Nat Commun.  2015 Jul7; 6:7582.  doi: 10.1038/ncomms8582

Thompson GJ, Pan W-J, Keilholz SD. Different dynamic resting state fMRI patterns are linked to different frequencies of neural activity.  J Neurophysiol. 2015;114(1): 114-24.  doi: 10.1152/jn.00235.2015

Magnuson, M. E., Thompson, G. J., Schwarb, H., Pan, W. J., McKinley, A., Schumacher, E. H., & Keilholz, S. D. (2015). Errors on interrupter tasks presented during spatial and verbal working memory performance are linearly linked to large-scale functional network connectivity in high temporal resolution resting state fMRI. Brain Imaging Behav. doi: 10.1007/s11682-014-9347-3

Keifer OP Jr, Gutman DA, Hecht EE, Keilholz SD, Ressler KJ. A comparative analysis of mouse and human medial geniculate nucleus connectivity: A DTI and anterograde tracing study. Neuroimage. 2015 Jan 15;105:53-66. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.10.047.


Keilholz SD. The neural basis of time-varying resting-state functional connectivity. Brain Connect. 2014 Dec;4(10):769-79. doi: 10.1089/brain.2014.0250.

Thompson GJ, Pan WJ, Billings JC, Grooms JK, Shakil S, Jaeger D, Keilholz SD. Phase-amplitude coupling and infraslow (<1 Hz) frequencies in the rat brain: relationship to resting state fMRI. Front Integr Neurosci. 2014 May 27;8:41. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2014.00041.

Nemeth CL, Gutman DA, Majeed W, Keilholz SD, Neigh GN. Microembolism induces anhedonia but no detectable changes in white matter integrity in aged rats. PLoS One. 2014 May 8;9(5):e96624.

Magnuson ME, Thompson GJ, Pan WJ, Keilholz SD. Time-dependent effects of isoflurane and dexmedetomidine on functional connectivity, spectral characteristics, and spatial distribution of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations.  NMR Biomed. 2014 Mar;27(3):291-303.

Magnuson ME, Thompson GJ, Pan WJ, Keilholz SD. Effects of severing the corpus callosum on electrical and BOLD functional connectivity and spontaneous dynamic activity in the rat brain. Brain Connect. 2014 Feb;4(1):15-29.

Thompson GJ, Pan WJ, Magnuson ME, Jaeger D, Keilholz SD.  Quasi-periodic patterns (QPP): Large-scale dynamics in resting state fMRI that correlate with local infraslow electrical activity.  NeuroImage 2014 Jan 1;84:1018-31.


Thompson GJ, Merritt MD, Pan WJ, Magnuson ME, Grooms JK, Jaeger D, Keilholz SD.  Neural correlates of time-varying functional connectivity in the rat. Neuroimage. 2013 Jul 19;83C:826-836.

Hutchison RM, Womelsdorf T, Allen EA, Bandettini PA, Calhoun VD, Corbetta M, Della Penna S, Duyn JH, Glover GH, Gonzalez-Castillo J, Handwerker DA, Keilholz S, Kiviniemi V, Leopold DA, de Pasquale F, Sporns O, Walter M, Chang C.  Dynamic functional connectivity: Promise, issues, and interpretations.  Neuroimage. 2013 Oct 15;80:360-78.

Pan WJ, Thompson GJ, Magnuson ME, Jaeger D, Keilholz S.  Infraslow LFP correlates to resting-state fMRI BOLD signals. Neuroimage. 2013 Jul 1;74:288-97.

Keilholz SD, Magnuson ME, Pan W-J, Willis M, Thompson GJ.  Dynamic properties of functional connectivity in the rodent.  Brain Connect. 2013;3(1):31-40.  Proof for BC paper

Gutman DA, Magnuson M, Majeed W, Keifer OP Jr, Davis M, Ressler KJ, Keilholz S. Mapping of the mouse olfactory system with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Brain Struct Funct. 2013 Mar;218(2):527-37.


Gutman DA, Keifer OP Jr, Magnuson ME, Choi DC, Majeed W, Keilholz S, Ressler KJ. A DTI tractography analysis of infralimbic and prelimbic connectivity in the mouse using high-throughput MRI.  Neuroimage. 2012 Nov 1;63(2):800-11.

Thompson GJ, Magnuson ME, Merritt MD, Schwarb H, Pan WJ, McKinley A, Tripp LD, Schumacher EH, Keilholz SD. Short-time windows of correlation between large-scale functional brain networks predict vigilance intraindividually and interindividually.  Hum Brain Mapp. 2012 Jun 27.


Majeed W, Magnuson M, Hasenkamp W, Schwarb H, Schumacher EH, Barsalou L, Keilholz SD. Spatiotemporal dynamics of low frequency BOLD fluctuations in rats and humans. Neuroimage. 2011 Jan 15;54(2):1140-50.

Pan WJ, Thompson G, Magnuson M, Majeed W, Jaeger D, Keilholz S.  Broadband local field potentials correlate with spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging signals in the rat somatosensory cortex under isoflurane anesthesia. Brain Connect. 2011;1(2):119-31.  Proof


Magnuson M, Majeed W, Keilholz SD.  Functional connectivity in blood oxygenation level-dependent and cerebral blood volume-weighted resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in the rat brain. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 Sep;32(3):584-92.

Williams KA, Magnuson M, Majeed W, LaConte SM, Peltier SJ, Hu X, Keilholz SD. Comparison of alpha-chloralose, medetomidine and isoflurane anesthesia for functional connectivity mapping in the rat.  Magn Reson Imaging. 2010 Sep;28(7):995-1003.

Pan WJ, Thompson G, Magnuson M, Majeed W, Jaeger D, Keilholz S.  Simultaneous FMRI and electrophysiology in the rodent brain. J Vis Exp. 2010 Aug 19;(42).

Keilholz SD, Magnuson M, Thompson G.  Evaluation of data-driven network analysis approaches for functional connectivity MRI.  Brain Struct Funct. 2010 Aug;215(2):129-40. Epub 2010 Sep 21.


Majeed W, Magnuson M, Keilholz SD.  Spatiotemporal dynamics of low frequency fluctuations in BOLD fMRI of the rat.  J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009 Aug;30(2):384-93.